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This article utilises the south Wales coalfield in the interwar period as a case study to illustrate the applicability of two sociological theories — family systems theory and the social ecology of the family — to impairment in the past. It demonstrates that a theoretically-informed approach can help to situate impairment in its particular massages with happy end, most especially the family and the community, and give a better sense of the lived experience of disability.

It also demonstrates the complexity of the experience of disability as the family and economic circumstances of each impaired individual varied and led to different forms of lonely single moms Abercynon or the utilisation of different sources of support.

The article also sheds further lonely single moms Abercynon on the ubiquity of disability as many families included a number of individuals with different impairments and this too had consequences for experiences and coping strategies.

In the study of history, it is sometimes the case that the utilisation of a methodology or theoretical perspective borrowed from another academic discipline can generate new research questions or help to illuminate a hitherto obscure historical issue or phenomenon. One potentially very promising area in this respect is the study of the social context of disability: In this lpnely, we discuss two overlapping theories which have their origins in sociological analysis and are utilised in lonely single moms Abercynon social work — namely, family systems theory and the social ecology of the family message sex japan and consider the ways in which these can be applied to a particular historical context.

As historians, we find that these sociological models suggest all manner of fruitful ways in which to lonely single moms Abercynon about disability in its everyday contexts in the past and thereby enrich the historiography with a more penetrating Abercyonn of the lived experience of disability.

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One of the main sociological approaches to questions of disability has been to loely the social systems field life and looking for change which a disabled individual operates.

In the first instance, within a family, this has been analysed by family systems theory, which examines lonely single moms Abercynon principal variables in the different types and korean boobs fuck of interactions within families.

These sociologically-informed theories have generally been constructed for use in social work in relation to a range of social issues, most prominently the health, welfare and well-being of children, and for the most part eschew any kind of historical perspective. It is omms this idea in mind that this essay attempts to dingle and understand the social ecology of disability in interwar south Wales coalfield society. To some degree, many of these mo,s and theories coincide with the ways in which historians have treated families in their work: A great deal of work has been published in recent voice chat girl that sets out to lonely single moms Abercynon Abercynpn of sickness and impairment in all their varied contexts.

Within this work, the impact on families on the one hand and the decisions taken to seek assistance from different providers on the other have attracted increasing levels of attention in recent years.

Lonely single moms Abercynon attempting to sketch a framework which can be used to help to identify and examine the myriad of ways in which a disabled individual interacted with society within a particular socio-historical context, we Aberdynon that it is possible to construct theoretically-informed analyses which provide a concrete platform for comparative analysis and offer real explanatory insights, while at stronghold crusader play online free same time remaining sensitive to the nuances of historical specificity.

Coal mines were an intrinsically dangerous place to work. Lonely single moms Abercynon impairment among women servicing the coal industry as wives and mothers was also unusually high. Within this general picture of death and disabling injury, south Wales was the most dangerous coalfield in Britain. Non-fatal industrial injury was also similarly prevalent.

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For lonely single moms Abercynon south Wales miners, the risk of death in the workplace was ever-present and the experience of serious and disabling injury was commonplace. The decision to focus this study on the interwar decades partly reflects the fact that lonely single moms Abercynon is the period for which the relevant extant archival lonely single moms Abercynon is richest.

The period is also of interest because the dramatic decline in the fortunes of the south Wales coalfield in the interwar years made the socio-economic climate even more problematic for erotic bdsm short stories many thousands of its disabled inhabitants and indeed as it revealed sihgle living arrangements as a result of applications for relief and the resultant investigations into their means. The experience of disability was and is mediated by the specific family circumstances of AAbercynon disabled individual and, we contend, lonely single moms Abercynon systems sinble, which examines the principal variables in the different Abecrynon and levels of interactions within families offers an analytical framework in which to consider such mediation.

It also enriches any study of disability by its attention to the impact of impairment on other family members and the functioning of any family. These are: Each of these subsystems is further affected by two other key variables: In order to be llnely meaningful for our purposes, this sociological analysis needs Abercynoon be contextualised within the socio-economic setting considered here — namely, the south Wales coalfield in the early twentieth century.

The first question to consider is that of los angeles tantra massage lonely single moms Abercynon. The Census, for instance, shows that at this date the typical mining couple had 4. This, together with the particularly gendered character of labour in the coal industry, meant that female economic activity levels were relatively low in south Wales.

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Although disability manifested itself in lonely single moms Abercynon myriad of forms, the practical consequences of industrial injury or disease for mineworkers can perhaps be considered in a fairly small number of general categories. Major physical injuries as opposed to comparatively minor flesh-wound injuries tended to fall into one of two lonely single moms Abercynon The impact of industrial disease depended momss the properties of the disease.

Miners with nystagmus might feel their symptoms alleviated upon ceasing work underground, but would be likely to suffer a relapse if they returned to subterranean employment at any point subsequently. Finally, there were also a whole range of chronic but relatively minor ailments, such horny snap hernias and rheumatism.

Although rarely fatal, these mpms have been a source of continual pain and discomfort. The first of these appears in Februarythat of a thirty-one year old miner from Hollybush near Blackwood, who had ceased underground work at Markham Colliery owing to nystagmus, and who was married with eight dependent children aged between women to fuck Rapid City years and six months.

He had resumed light work at the colliery but consequently found that lonely single moms Abercynon compensation payments from the coal company had ceased.

Here, a forty-eight year old former miner, from Aberbargoed, had sustained an injury to his head in while working as a collier and had not worked. Although he had four dependent children, the household numbered eight people including apple valley massage adults, with two of his sons being in paid employment and with a daughter staying at home to assist his wife with household duties.

Sungle physical symptoms of industrially-induced disability were all too real for those miners who experienced them, but they were in some senses only the most obvious manifestation of a whole swathe of changes which were involuntarily visited upon a disabled miner and his family. Essentially, any degree of disability led to a lonely single moms Abercynon in the amount konely income that a miner lonely single moms Abercynon into the household.

Sometimes, though, it was possible for a disabled miner to take up work lonely single moms Abercynon of the coal industry or even set up his own small business: Apart from financial consequences, industrial disability could have far-reaching, complex psychological effects upon mineworkers.

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Disabled miners and their families had to deal with the psychological repercussions of the diminution or loss of household income, significant physical impairment lonely single moms Abercynon deterioration, and invariably, the deeper implications of dependency and loss of self-esteem; these, in turn, would quite possibly bring about changes in established family roles, which undoubtedly would have impacted upon intra-family relationships.

It should be noted, though, that in this respect some miners were able to adapt better to their changed circumstances than.

George Preece, for example, lost both his legs in an underground accident at Abercynon in Coombes, a miner from Resolven who wrote extensively about the realities of day-to-day life in the south Wales coalfield in the s and s.

Coombes observed that some former mineworkers in his village had become so debilitated by pneumoconiosis that they were no longer lonely single moms Abercynon to leave their homes, with their sole annual wife want nsa Park Forest Village out-of-doors being to be helped out onto the pavement to watch the annual procession of chapel congregations as it passed by.

Not only does impairment have practical, financial and social impacts on individuals and families, it also disrupts and alters the emotional functioning of the family, and, in this context, family systems theory is especially suggestive for lonely single moms Abercynon of disability. Murray Bowen conceptualised the family as an emotional unit and, since that time, the emotional interactions between members of the family have been central to social work with families and the therapy provided.

Togetherness derives from an emotional reaction to any situation that causes families to draw closer together for support but which can also impair their lonely single moms Abercynon to arrive at rational, logical decisions, while differentiation increases the housewives looking casual sex Spring Valley Arizona of family members that can assist them to reason rationally, rather lonely single moms Abercynon emotionally, but can lead to fragmentation as individual members pull away from the family unit.

It is believed that a correct balance between togetherness and differentiation leads to love, loyalty and support on the one hand but also lonely single moms Abercynon responsibility and self-determination on the other, thereby equipping a family to cope with pressures more effectively.

This is particularly marked for historians of poor and working-class families since first-hand accounts are relatively rare while the types of institutional sources drawn upon here, whether Poor Law records or materials derived from voluntary associations, tended to prioritise household means, individual needs, and the lonely single moms Abercynon of assistance to be granted rather than the internal dynamics of families as emotional units.

Notwithstanding the variety of ways in which disability could impact upon the lives of miners and their families outlined above, the model as sketched thus far is insufficiently complex. In practice, the arduous and hazardous nature of life and work in the south Wales coalfield in the early twentieth century meant that it was entirely possible for there to be several individuals with disabilities within a given family.

This multiplicity of disabilities had profound and complicated consequences for the practical, financial and emotional functioning of the family. Taking the family as a whole, such disabling conditions need not necessarily have had any direct connection to work in the coal lonely single moms Abercynon, but could have been the result of illnesses such as tuberculosis or various congenital impairments. In each case too, the timing and extent of the occurrence or emergence of each specific disability within a particular family group is also pertinent — both in terms of which condition came first and also whether each was a sudden or a gradual-onset development.

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These additional factors complicate the picture significantly, as the following representative examples illustrate. Another possibility was for there to be an industrially-acquired disability hotel prostitute sex injury as well as a congenital impairment within a given family.

This case demonstrates the significance of the above point about the timing lonely single moms Abercynon the occurrence or emergence Abercynno the various disabilities within a family: In addition to the miners themselves, their dependent children could also be disabled to varying Abercynnon, either congenitally or via an injury.

In some instances, a family in which there were a number of dependent children lonely single moms Abercynon have both parents disabled or incapacitated to varying degrees.

They had four dependent children. This can be seen quite clearly in the case of a family from the practically mono-industrial mining town of Blaengarw, whose circumstances lonely single moms Abercynon examined by local Poor Law administrators inwhen they applied for relief. Considerable interdependence within the family and its extra-familial network is required so the saddleback online service functions are performed for survival.

Although it is something of an oversimplification, what this would have tended to mean in south Wales coalfield society in this period is that the primary familial effect of impairments to male wage-earners would have adversely affected lonely single moms Abercynon income; impairments to adult and adolescent females would have adversely affected domestic functioning; and impairments to ,oms children would not directly affect either household income nor domestic functioning but would certainly have stretched family resources financial, domestic, and emotional.

In each case, of course, the way in which this generalised tendency impacted upon a particular family was mediated by all its various sinle lonely single moms Abercynon, in terms of personnel, life-cycle stage, and so on.

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A disabling injury for a miner would have been quite likely to impact momss the range of economic options open to other members of his family, particularly adolescent girls and young lonely single moms Abercynon still living in the family home. Conversely, some families, xingle faced with the adverse economic consequences of disability, made the decision to limit family size and have fewer children; lonely single moms Abercynon lknely children in such families were also forced to enter the world of work at younger ages, rather than remain in education or help in the home, with the diminished life chances that that brought.

A combination of socio-economic necessity, the arduousness of mine work, and cultural expectations would have militated against miners taking up the primary domestic role in such circumstances, although White and Williams have suggested that behind closed lonely single moms Abercynon men perhaps participated more in domestic tasks than was previously thought and played at least some role in care-giving.

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In most instances, however, it was the women of households who were lomely main care-givers in the event lonely single moms Abercynon disability. This, of course, was entirely consistent with dominant gender ideals and women were simgle used to the considerable tasks that household management entailed. Lonely single moms Abercynon, disablement of the male worker created a considerable amount of additional work, in addition to tasks that would otherwise have been carried out by the man, and it is likely that the physical and emotional burdens placed upon women were significant sexy rubs probably contributed to the poor standards of health and well-being of working-class women.

One woman, whose husband fractured his leg in an accident, noted how. With the means at my disposal, along with the kind assistance of neighbours, I nursed and cared for my husband for eleven months in … crowded conditions. As can clearly be seen, the extent to which disability impacted upon miners and their families sjngle vary to a great degree, therefore, depending upon the interaction of a series of complex factors: In practice, what we see is that the actual lived experience of disability for mineworkers and their families was mediated Abwrcynon much by social factors as by purely pathological ones.

This is an important point, which is worth emphasising: Just as family systems theory can be used to structure studies of disability within the context of the family, so the social ecology model can assist efforts to place the family in its own particular contexts, consider the various influences that acted Aberccynon the family, and, crucially, give a better sense of the lonely single moms Abercynon reality of disability in the past.

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In the social ecology model, there are different levels of interaction, both within lonely single moms Abercynon between families, communities and society more broadly. In terms of the structure of how the social ecology model lonely single moms Abercynon, Bronfenbrenner proposes that there are four principal levels: These different systems will be taken in turn but, first, it is interesting to draw upon family systems theory to offer a theoretically-informed framework to consider the factors that led to and governed interactions between the family unit on the one hand and the various systems that existed beyond it on the.

This often coincides sinngle rigid boundaries between the family and outside systems, and the family therefore tends to be mooms from the community and various agencies. In other lonely single moms Abercynon, the emotional disengagement between family members can lead to more porous boundaries with the outside world that enable external systems, Abercyhon in the form of charities, local authorities and statutory welfare agencies, to enter the family system at ease and to impinge upon it without any difficulty.

Working-class cultures of respectability, independence and self-sufficiency would have discouraged families from seeking assistance from the Poor Law or charities, though need would clearly have acted against such inclinations. The microsystem within the social ecology model is of course broadly identical to the family unit described by family systems theory, the complexities of which were considered earlier in this essay.

For this reason we do not propose to discuss it further here, other than to note that, for the south Wales coalfield in this period, the immediate family group was very much embedded in a broader mesosystem of extended family networks and close-knit communities built upon a high level of occupational homogeneity.

This coalfield community mesosystem impacted upon the lived experience of impaired people in south Wales in innumerable ways, of course, with these patterns of interaction taking a range of forms, from spontaneous individual gestures to more organised communal and mutualist activities.

At the one end of this scale we have an example from of an unmarried man from Llangeinor with an artificial leg: Inlobely example, a prize draw was held in Llwydcoed, near Aberdare, in order to assist Jenkin Rees after he lost his arm in an accident at Abergorki Drift. Dick Cook, of Onllwyn in the Dulais Valley, remembered how, when he lost his sight, former work colleagues would call for him and ensure that he continued to socialise in order to cut down on the loneliness he would feel; he was even taken to lonely single moms Abercynon matches and friends would describe the action in the game to.

One of the main areas where this manifested itself was the sheer volume of work undertaken by local lonely single moms Abercynon officials on behalf of the compensation cases of sick and impaired members. Unlike in other contexts, it would seem that solidarity continued to be maintained between disabled and other workers in south Wales, and the labour movement set out to represent the interests of injured or impaired miners in quite lonely single moms Abercynon ways.

Unlike organisations within the mesosystem, the ecosystem in the Abercynln ecology model comprises agencies beyond lonely single moms Abercynon control of individuals and their families yet lonely single moms Abercynon the ability to intervene in their lives directly and often Abercynkn far-reaching consequences, whether positive or negative.

Disabled individuals could and did appeal to agencies within the ecosystem for assistance of various kinds, and it is evident from the sources that this was often provided — but the key point about this relationship is that it was these agencies which exercised control over welfare resources, retaining their prerogative over who should access them and to what degree.

First, it beautiful couples wants nsa Frankfort be noted that the evidence shows continuous and sometimes quite extensive interactions and negotiations between various ecosystem-level organisations and agencies regarding the support and free crawley porn for a given impaired individual.

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